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Word Definitions

QCA Year 7 Units

7A Cells
Chlorophyll: Green coloured catalyst in a plant cell.
Epithelial: Cells in the nose and throat that trap dust particles.
Membrane: Flexible covering of an animal cell.
Neurone: A specialised nerve cell.
Vacuole: Space in a plant cell filled with watery sap.
Cytoplasm: Where the chemical reactions take place in a cell.
Organ: Groups of tissues working together.
Tissue: A group of cells working together.
Nucleus: The control centre of the cell.
Cell: The simplest living organisms have only got one of these.
Chloroplast: Part of the plant that contains chlorophyll and conducts photosynthesis.
Blood: A liquid (plasma), in which red and white blood cells are suspended.
Copies: Forms cells that have the same genetic make-up as the original.
Control: A standard of comparison for checking the results of an experiment.
Divide: The nucleus and cytoplasm of a cell split to form new cells.
Microscope; Instrument with lenses used to magnify small objects.
Pollen: Fine dust produced by seed plants containing male reproductive cells.
Observation: Watching and recording facts and changes.
Structure: An organ or other parts of an organism.
Specialised: Designed for a particular function.
Relate: To have a connection or reference.

7B Reproduction
Ovary: Organ where eggs are made.
Testes: Organ where sperm are made.
Oviduct: Eggs travel through this from ovary to uterus.
Uterus: Where the foetus is kept safely inside the mother's body.
Menstruation: When the lining of the uterus is discarded by the body – a period.
Ovulation: The process of forming eggs.
Fertilisation: When a female cell becomes joined with a male cell.
Sperm: The male sex cell.
Gestation: How long the foetus stays in the uterus.
Mammary Gland: Organ that provides a baby mammal with milk.
Hereditary: Passed down from the parent organism.
Puberty: The time when sex organs begin to function.
Foetus: The developing animal after the embryonic state.
Ovum: Female sex cell, egg.
Reproduction: The sexual or non sexual process by which plants and animals create new individuals of the same kind.
Human: A person, a member of the mammal species Homo sapiens.
Development: Process of growing or changing.
Offspring: Child or descendant of a plant or animal.
Egg: Ovum, female reproductive cell produced in the ovary.
Placenta: Organ formed in the uterus during pregnancy allowing blood flow between the mother and foetus to deliver oxygen and nutrients and eliminate waste.
Nutrients: The substances taken in by plants or animals and used for growth, repair and energy.
Fusion; When the sperm fertilizes the egg.
Adolescence: Period between puberty and adulthood.
Hormone: Chemicals produced by the endocrine glands which effect the body's function.
Intercourse: Sexual intercourse where a man's erect penis is put into the female's vagina for pleasure or reproduction.
Glands: Organs or cells which produce a secretion such as breast milk, sweat, saliva or hormones.
Womb: Uterus organ in the mother where a foetus develops until ready for birth.

Predator: An animal that hunts other animals for food.
Prey: An animal that may be eaten by other animals.
Food web: Formed from interconnected food chains. (4,3)
Carnivore: An animal that only eats meat.
Herbivore: An animal that only eats plants.
Migration: When animals move from one place to another with changing seasons.
Hibernation: When animals survive the Winter by sleeping.
Dormant: When plants show no sign of growth during the Winter months.
Producer: Plants are called this because they make their own food from light energy.
Consumer: Animals are called this because they cannot make their own food.
Adaptation: The process of changing over the generations to survive in a particular habitat.
Environment: The surroundings in which all animals and plants live.
Habitat: The natural home of a particular plant or animal.
Nocturnal: Animals that are active at night are called this.
Omnivore: An animal (like humans) that can eat plants and meat.
Animal: Multicellular organism of kingdom Animalia. Different from plants because they
have a well-defined shape , can move voluntarily, actively acquire food and digest it internally, and have sensory and nervous systems that allow them to respond rapidly to stimuli.
Plant: Member of the kingdom Plantae, they have rigid cell walls and produce their food by photosynthesis.
Organism: Any living thing
Feeding Chain: Diagram showing what an animal eats and what eats it.
Variety: Small inherited differences within a species.
Sample: Small number or part of a larger whole used in an experiment
Primary consumer: The first animal in a food chain – eats plants.
Secondary consumer: Second animal in a food chain that eats the primary consumer.
Tertiary consumer: Third animal in the food chain that eats the secondary consumer.

Classification: Putting species into larger groups according to their features.
Variation: A small difference between members of the same species.
Abdomen: The lower part of an animal's body, containing the stomach and other organs.
Vertebrate: Animals with a backbone.
Invertebrate: Animals without a backbone.
Mammal: Animals that gives birth to live young.
Amphibian: A type of animal that live in and out of water.
Reptile: A type of animal with scales that only lives on land.
Characteristic: Features that animals or plants have.
Identification: Being able to tell what something is.
Continuous: When a result can take any value within a range of values it is said to be ...
Insect: A type of small, air-breathing animal with six legs.
Fish: An animal that lives in water and is covered with scales.
Key: A system of classifying objects, plants or animals.
Group: Similar plants or animals are put into a ....
Kingdom: One of the five major divisions of living things.
Animal: Multicellular organism of kingdom Animalia. Different from plants because they
have a well-defined shape , can move voluntarily, actively acquire food and digest it internally, and have sensory and nervous systems that allow them to respond rapidly to stimuli.
Organism: Any living thing
Environment; surroundings in which a person , plant or animal lives.
Plant: Member of the kingdom Plantae, they have rigid cell walls and produce their food by photosynthesis.
Taxonomic: The scientific system for identifying, naming and classifying organisms
Specimen: One individual taken as typical of the group.
Observe: To watch carefully.
Interpret: To explain the meaning of data.
Subdivide: To separate into smaller parts.

Acid: Something like vinegar with a pH less than 7.
Alkali: Something like bleach with a pH more than 7.
Indicator: Shows whether something is alkali or acid.
Solution: A liquid with a solid dissolved in it.
Neutral: Something with a pH of 7 exactly.
React: When substances chemically combine they ......
Word Equation: A way of writing down a chemical reaction
Range: This is from 0 to 14 for the pH scale of acids and alkalis.
Corrosive: A dangerous substance that dissolves other materials.
Caustic: A corrosive alkali is called ...
Lemon: A yellow citrus fruit.
Citric: Acid from grapefruits and oranges.
Vinegar: Put this acid on your chips together with salt.
Bleach: Removes colour or stains from cloth.
Sour: Acidic food taste.
Water: The most common solvent.
Dilute: Few molecules per litre of solvent.
Concentrated: Many molecules per litre of solvent.
Colour: How an acid-alkali indicator indicates.
Sulphuric: Battery acid.
Litmus: Red and blue indicator.
Universal: Indicator that spans the range 0 to 14.
Hazard: A danger.
Safety: An environment where you are unlikely to be harmed
Antacid: substance used to neutralise acid especially in the stomach
Indigestion: difficulty in digesting food, a common cause of stomach ache.

Oxygen: A colourless gaseous element used in respiration
Methane: This is called natural gas, and is used in our Bunsen burners.
Zinc: Used to galvanize steel in order to reduce corrosion.
Granules: Medium sized lumps of a substance.
Calcium: Element in milk needed for strong, healthy bones.
Carbonate: Compounds typically containing only a metal, carbon and oxygen.
Reactant: A starting substance in a chemical reaction.
Product: A finishing substance in a chemical reaction.
Word Equation: A way of writing down a chemical reaction
Graph: Results shown clearly in a diagram with axes, often drawn on squared paper
Generalisation: Conclusions applied to many different situations.
Evaluate: This means to appraise your completed experiment.
Neutralisation: Chemical reaction between an acid and an alkali.
Indigestion: Upset stomach.
Burning: Chemical reaction between a substance and oxygen in the air.
Combustion: A word that means burning.
Irreversible: Very difficult to take in the other direction.
Carbon: The element present in all organic compounds.
Dioxide: This has two oxygen atoms per molecule.
Marble: A hard form of limestone used to make statues.
Oxide: A chemical compound containing oxygen and one other element.
Fossil fuel: Oil, gas and coal
Sulphur: Acid rain results from the burning of this yellow element.
Hydrogen: A highly flammable gas which combines with oxygen to create environmentally friendly energy leaving only water.
Candle: A wax stick with a wick used to give out light
Corrosive: Attacks and damages on contact
Weathering: changing rock by natural processes.

Atom: The smallest particle of an element.
Diffusion: The movement of particles of one substance through another substance.
Molecule: A group of atoms chemically joined.
Pressure: Force in newtons divided by the area in square metres.
Vapour: A gas at the same temperature as its liquid state
Evaporate: Change from a liquid to a gas - only at the liquid surface.
Boiling: When liquid changes state to a gas.
Condense: When a gas changes state to a liquid.
Freezing: When a liquid changes state to become a solid.
Heat: A form of energy due to molecular motion.
Temperature: A measure of how hot or cold a substance is.
Vacuum: A volume empty of free molecules.
Particle: Smallest unit of substance.
Solid: Substances which keep their shape and volume and do not flow.
Liquid: Substances which which flow and change shape but not volume depending on their container.
Gas: Substances which change shape and volume depending on their container.
Theory: A proposal of how something works
Particle Model Shows how particles are arranged and behave in different substances.
Observation: A careful study of an activity
Metal: Ductile substances which are good conductors of light and heat.
Mixing: Combining two or more gases, liquids or powdered solids
Hot: When the particles in a substance each have a large amount of kinetic energy
Crystal: A substance where the particles are in an ordered pattern

Solution: The liquid that contains dissolved solute.
Solute: The solid that is dissolved in a solution.
Solvent: The liquid in which the solute dissolves.
Soluble: A substance that can dissolve in a particular solvent.
Insoluble: A substance that cannot dissolve in a particular solvent.
Saturated: No more solute can be dissolved in this type of solution.
Filtration: This technique is used to remove insoluble substances suspended in a liquid.
Distillation: This technique is used to separate liquids with different boiling points.
Chromatography: This technique is used to separate components of ink, for example, by diffusion.
Chromatogram: The colourful result of separation by chromatography.
Mixture: Two or more substances that are not chemically combined.
Ethanol: An alcohol present in beer, wine and spirits.
Petrol: A solvent that is also used as a fuel for cars.
Water: The most common solvent, it is necessary for life.
Air: A mixture of gases that forms our atmosphere.
Fish: Animals that have gills and swim in the sea and rivers.
Dissolve: To form a solution from solvent and solute.
Salt: Sodium chloride is an example of this type of chemical compound.
Sugar: An organic chemical compound with a sweet taste.
Solubility: The amount of a substance that dissolves per litre of solvent.
Temperature: A measure of how hot something is.
Solid: Substances which keep their shape and volume and do not flow.
Liquid: Substances which which flow and change shape but not volume depending on their container.
Particle: Smallest piece of substance.
Rock: Natural solid mixture of minerals.
State: The form of a substance, solid liquid or gas
Separation: Dividing a mixture into its components

Renewable: Replaceable in the short time once it is used.
Nuclear: Energy generated from disintegrating atoms.
Coal: Solid fuel formed millions of years ago from dead plant matter.
Oil: Liquid fuel formed millions of years ago from dead sea creatures.
Methane: Bunsen burner fuel from deep underground.
Solar: Energy from the sun.
Biomass: Renewable energy from harvesting plants for burning.
Electrical: Most useful form of energy.
Geothermal: Energy source from beneath the earth's surface.
Radiation: The energy from the Sun is transferred to the Earth by this process.
Uranium: Fuel for nuclear power stations.
Plutonium: Fuel for nuclear power stations.
Oxygen: Gas needed to let fuel burn.
Burn: Process used to extract energy from combustible fuels.
Flammable: Can catch light.
Turbine: Spins as a liquid or gas flows through it.
Generator: Transforms rotational kinetic energy into electricity.
Tidal: Pull due to the moon's gravitational attraction for the earth.
Wave: Crests and troughs on a liquid.
Hydro: Usually refers to electric power from water held behind a dam.
Energy: Light, sound, heat, kinetic, electrical and chemical are all forms of ...
Resource: Where the energy or mineral comes from
Fossil: The remains of living things
Bunsen: Burner fuelled by natural gas used in laboratories to heat up chemicals
Conservation: The total amount of energy or substance remains the same
Transfer: When energy stored in one form is changed to a different form.

Series: An electric circuit with components placed one after the other.
Parallel: An electric circuit with more than one complete loop.
Battery: Two or more electric cells form one of these.
Cell: Two or more of these in series form a battery.
Lamp: An electrical component that transforms electrical energy into heat and light.
Connect: This means join together.
Wire: Thin metal used to connect electrical components.
Switch: This is used to make or break a complete circuit.
Power: The rate of transforming energy.
Fuse: A thin metal wire that is designed to melt when the electric current is too large.
Current: Movement of electric charge around a complete circuit.
Resistance: Opposes the flow of electric current.
Energy: Light, sound, heat, kinetic, electrical and chemical are all forms of ...
Transfer: Move from place to place.
Buzzer: Electrical component that transforms electrical energy into sound energy.
Symbol: Diagram of an electrical component.
Circuit: Two or more electrical components connected together.
Ammeter: Electrical device that measures electric current.
Voltmeter: Electrical device that measures potential difference (voltage).
Negative: The opposite of positive, usually has a black terminal.
Positive: The opposite of negative, usually has a red terminal.
Charge: Electric current is the flow of ...
Bulb: Glass housing containing a filament which lights up when an electric current is passed through it.
Hazard: A danger.
Metal: Ductile substances which are good conductors of light and heat.
Insulator: Substance that does not allow energy to move through it easily.
Light: Visible form of energy.
Dimmer: A device that controls brightness.

Push: Force to move something away from you.
Pull: Force to bring something towards you.
Gravity: This gives everything its weight on Earth, or anywhere else.
Friction: This force opposes motion.
Air resistance: Friction force as you go through the atmosphere
Magnetic: Iron, cobalt and nickel are all...
Drag: Air resistance and water resistance are both examples of ...
Up-thrust: Another termfor buoyancy.
Float: A substance with a lower density than a given fluid will ...
Buoyancy: Another word for the up-thrust force.
Weight: The force on a mass due to gravity.
Mass: An object's property that makes it hard to change its motion.
Density: "Heaviness", a thing’s mass divided by its volume.
Lubricant: Fluid that reduces friction between surfaces.
Elastic: This means that it returns to its original shape when deformed.
MOVED: Acronym for mass over volume equals density.
Tension: When a wire is pulled it is said to be in ...
Compression: When you stand on a brick it is said to be in ...
Squeeze: This means to put in compression.
Stretch: This means to pull something apart.

Star: A huge ball of gas that emits light. Our Sun is one.
Planet: This orbits a star and reflects the star's light.
Satellite: This orbits a planet, our moon is one.
Luminous: This means that something gives out light.
Phase: Appearance of a moon or planet - full, new or crescent for example.
Asteroid: A small lump of rock and metal that moves around the Sun, mainly between Mars and Jupiter.
Eclipse: When the moon casts a shadow on the Earth.
Orbit: The path of a planet around the Sun, or a satellite around a planet.
Rotate: Spin on its axis.
Tilt: How much a line departs from the vertical.
Mercury: Planet nearest the Sun.
Venus: Hot planet with acidic clouds, second closest to the Sun.
Earth: Our home, the third planet from the Sun.
Mars: Red planet with canyons, volcanoes and polar ice caps.
Jupiter: Huge gassy planet with a giant red spot.
Saturn: A gassy planet with a spectacular ring system.
Uranus: Third largest planet in our solar system, seventh furthest from the Sun.
Neptune: A blue planet, outermost of the gassy planets in our solar system.
Pluto: Planet usually furthest from the Sun.
Galaxy: A group of millions of stars.






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