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Word Definitions

Y8 Science Definitions

8a - Food
Protein: Type of food that is essential for growth and repair.
Carbohydrate: Type of food that provides energy.
Fat: Type of food that provides energy.
Starch: Insoluble carbohydrate with big molecules.
Vitamins: These are needed in very small amounts to keep body processes working properly.
Minerals: Essential elements, like calcium for healthy bones.
Fibre: Roughage - keeps food moving through the digestive system.
Mouth: Where food enters the body.
Intestine: Organ where food is absorbed into the blood.
Gullet: Oesophagus - the tube from mouth to stomach.
Rectum: This is where faeces (mainly indigestible food) is stored.
Anus: This is where faeces (mainly indigestible food) finally leaves the body.
Villus: A finger shaped projection in the digestive system that helps absorb food into the bloodstream.
Visking: Type of tubing that is semi-permeable - only small molecules can get through.
Stomach: Muscular organ in your body that churns up food.
Enzyme: An organic catalyst - speeds up chemical reactions.
Amino Acid: Proteins are made up from a string of these(5,4).
Energy: Needed to drive all life processes.
Balanced: When a diet has a healthy mixture of different foods it is ...
Diet: All the different foods that are eaten.
Molecule: A group of atoms bonded together, representing the smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound
Digestion: The way that an organism changes a substance into nutrients.
Nutrient: A chemical element or compound used in an organism's metabolism or physiology
Secondary: A secondary source is a document or website that describes information that was originally presented elsewhere
Temperature: A measure of how hot or cold a substance is.
Glucose: A type of sugar used by cells in an organism as a source of energy.
Sugar: A sweet tasting carbohydrate
Faeces: waste matter remaining after food has been digested, discharged from the bowels;

8b - Respiration
Trachea: The windpipe - tube between throat and lungs.
Bronchus: Where the trachea splits in two, one ... to each lung.
Alveolus: Tiny air bag with large surface area, found in the lungs.
Haemoglobin: Red substance in blood that carries oxygen.
Artery: A thick walled blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart to the rest of the body.
Vein: A blood vessel that carries blood back to the heart.
Capillary: A thin blood vessel only one blood cell wide.
Breathing: The mechanical movement of air in and out of the lungs.
Ventilation: The movement of air in and out of the lungs.
Blood: Red liquid mixture that carries oxygen and food to every cell.
Inhale: Drawing air into the lungs - breathing in.
Exhale: Pushing air out of the lungs - breathing out.
Aerobic: Respiration using air is called ...
Respiration: A chemical reaction taking place in all living cells where glucose and oxygen react to release energy.
Oxygen: Gas in the atmosphere needed for respiration.
Carbon Dioxide: Gaseous product of respiration (6,7)
Heart: Muscular organ that pumps blood around the body.
Circulation: The flow of blood around the human body.
Glucose: Simple sugar fuel used in respiration.
Energy: Light, sound, heat, kinetic, electrical and chemical are all forms of ...
Heart: The muscular organ which contracts to pump blood around the body
Digestion: The way that an organism changes a substance into nutrients.
Fuel: A substance that undergoes a chemical reaction to produce energy.
Burn: Consumption of a type of fuel as an energy source.
Transport: Move from place to place
Bloodstream: Flow of blood through an animal’s veins and arteries
Muscle: A tissue that contracts to exert a force.

8c - Microbes
Bacteria: Primitive single celled organisms
Virus: A simple organism that can only reproduce within a living plant or animal cell. They often cause disease.
Fungus: A simple plant that lacks green chlorophyll. Athlete's foot is caused by one of these.
Infection: The result of disease causing bacteria entering the body.
Pathogen: An organism that causes disease.
Immunity: Increased resistance to a particular disease.
Vaccination: A method of stimulating resistance to diseases in the human body using microbes.
Inoculation: To inject a weakened form of a disease so as to create immunity to the disease.
Epidemic: A disease that spreads rapidly through a population.
Microbe: Tiny, microscopic organism usually a type of bacteria.
Microorganism: Tiny, microscopic life form.
Toadstool: An often poisonous, mushroom shaped fungus.
Antibiotic: A chemical that kills bacteria.
Penicillin: A famous antibiotic discovered by Alexander Fleming.
Culture: A mass of bacteria growing in a Petri dish.
Yeast: Single celled fungi important for their ability to ferment carbohydrates.
Agar: A nutrient jelly for growing bacteria.
Cheese: A solid yellow food made from milk.
Petri Dish: A clear shallow container for growing bacteria(5,4).
Organism: An individual animal, plant, or single-celled life form.
Disease: A medical condition that causes illness
Antibody: Antibodies are the key element in the immune system that combats infection.
Yoghurt: food prepared from milk fermented by added bacteria.
Cholera: A bacterial disease typically contracted from infected water supplies


8d - Ecology
Community: A group of living things sharing the same environment
Habitat: The natural place where a plant or animal lives, like a forest, desert, or riverbank.
Pyramid: A solid object that has a square base and a point at the top.
Foodchain: . A diagram that shows the transfer of energy as one animal eats another, it always starts with a plant.
Predator: An animal that catches and eats other animals.
Prey: An animal that is caught and eaten by another animal.
Carnivore: An animal that eats meat.
Environment: The natural world in which humans, animals, and plants live.
Ecosystem: A self contained community that interacts with the environment.
Transect: A strip of ground along which ecological population measurements are made at regular intervals.
Population: The number of animal or plants in a given habitat.
Vertebrate: An animal with a backbone.
Arthropod: An invertebrate that has jointed limbs and a segmented body.
Amphibian: Animal that lives on land and in the water.
Mammal: Animal that gives birth to live young.
Bird: A flying animal that evolved from the dinosaurs.
Reptile: A cold blooded land animal that lays eggs.
Quadrat: A square hoop used to define a set area for counting a population.
Nutrient: A life-essential chemical, like nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium.
Water: A simple chemical necessary for all life to exist.
Light: Visible energy from the sun used by plants in photosynthesis.
Conditions: The state of the environment
Relationship: The connection between different things
Distribution: The way that things are spread out in the environment
Taxonomic: Taxonomy is the classification of living things into groups.
Abundance: How much of something there is or how many of something there are.


8e - Atoms
Element: Contains only one type of atom. It is found on the periodic table.
Compound: This contains two or more elements chemically combined.
Periodic Table: This is where we find all the elements listed in order of atomic number(8,5).
Atom: The smallest particle of an element.
Molecule: A group of atoms chemically joined.
Symbol: A sign or abbreviation to represent an element.
Formula: A recipe for a particular chemical compound.
State: Form of matter - solid, liquid or gas.
Properties: What distinguishes one substance from another - how we tell substances apart.
Reactant: The starting chemicals in a reaction.
Product: The chemicals that we end up with in a reaction.
Reaction: How the chemical combination of substances takes place.
Word Equation: A way of writing down a chemical reaction (4,8).
Material: Another word for substance or stuff.
Chemical: An element or a compound.
Combined: This means joined together.
Crystal: Regular arrangement of molecules. Diamonds, emeralds and rubies are examples.
Model: A scientific representation or picture that helps us to understand how something works.
Metal: Shiny materials that are good conductors of heat and electricity.
Nonmetal: Usually electrical insulators with a dull appearance which are poor conductors of heat.
Period: A horizontal rows on the Periodic table.
Group: A vertical column of elements on the periodic table with similar properties.
Copper: A red-brown metal commonly used for its high conductivity of heat and electricity
Sodium: A metallic element found in common salt needed to make nerves work.
Carbon: A black solid element, found in all organic compounds.
Evidence: Facts or observations that support an idea.
Chlorine: A green gaseous element found in common salt
Hydrogen: A colourless gaseous element, lightest in the periodic table
Particle: A very small, tiny piece of a substance.

8f - Compounds
Element: These contain only one type of atom. They are all found on the periodic table.
Compound: This contains two or more elements chemically combined.
Mixture: Two or more chemicals together but not chemically combined.
Atom: The smallest particle of an element.
Composition: How something is made up is called its ...
Pure: This means containing only one substance.
Material: Another word for substance or stuff.
Properties: What distinguishes one substance from another - how we tell substances apart.
Hydrochloric: Type of acid that is found in the stomach.
Acid: A chemical with pH less than 7 - turns blue litmus paper red.
Sodium: A reactive alkali metal that is used in yellow street lights.
Carbonate: A chemical that contains a metal, carbon and oxygen only.
Irreversible: Very difficult to take in the other direction.
Reaction: How the chemical combination of substances takes place.
Formula: A recipe for a particular chemical compound.
Boil: Change state from liquid to gas.
Freeze: Change state from liquid to solid.
Melt: Change state from solid to liquid.
Celsius: Our everyday scale of temperature.
Temperature: A measure of the thermal energy in a substance.
Ratio: The number of atoms "A" for every atom "B" in a chemical compound is called the ...
Sulphur: A solid yellow element, used to make gunpowder
Oxygen: A colourless, gaseous element essential for respiration
Rock: Natural solid mixture of minerals.
Crystal: A substance where the particles are in an ordered pattern
Mineral: A solid substance found in a rock
Sequence: Things happening one after the other.

8g - Rocks
Weathering: Physical, biological or chemical breakdown of rocks.
Abrasion: Rubbing away, for example when rocks are swept along by a river.
Sediment: Deposit of small particles of rock, usually on a sea bed.
Erosion: The transport of weathered rock.
Millennia: Thousands of years.
Sequence: Things happening one after the other.
Porosity: Ability to soak up liquid like a sponge.
Granite: Hard, igneous rock with large pink, grey, black and white crystals.
Basalt: Black, volcanic rock with tiny crystals.
Obsidian: Shiny black, glassy volcanic rock. It has no crystals in it.
Limestone: A form of calcium carbonate softer than marble but harder than chalk.
Pumice: A light grey volcanic rock that floats on water.
Marble: A hard, white form of calcium carbonate that can be polished and that is used to make statues.
Acid: A chemical with a pH less than 7 that turns blue litmus paper red.
Rain: Liquid drops that fall from the sky in a storm.
Pollution: Contamination of the environment by humans.
Freeze: Change state from liquid to solid.
Thaw: When water changes state from solid ice to liquid water.
Crystal: Regular arrangement of molecules. Diamonds, emeralds and rubies are examples.
Grain: Particle of rock like speck of sand.
Layer: A flat deposit of rock.
Density: Mass divided by volume.
Acidity: The concentration of an acid in a substance, often measured with universal indicator paper.
Estuary: Where a river joins the sea.
Ice: Water in the solid state.
Rock: Natural solid mixture of minerals.
Fragment: A small part broken off of something
Geology: The scientific study of the earth and rocks
Transport: Verb to move from place to place
Chemical: A single compound or substance, usually one which has been artificially prepared or purified
River: A flow of water from mountain to sea.
Sandstone: Sedimentary rock consisting of sand or quartz grains stuck together
Gravel: A loose collection of small water-worn or pounded stones
Sand: Loose grains, resulting from the erosion of siliceous and other rocks
Mud: Soft, sticky substance resulting from the mixing of earth and water.

8h - Rock Cycle
Mountain: Tectonic plates push together and raise rock layers to form these.
River: A flow of water from mountain to sea.
Estuary: Where a river enters a sea.
Igneous: Rock type formed from the cooling of molten rock (magma).
Metamorphic: Rock type formed by the action of heat and/or pressure on an existing rock.
Sedimentary: Rock type formed by the deposition of small particles of eroded rock.
Pumice: A light grey volcanic rock that floats on water.
Basalt: Black, volcanic rock with tiny crystals.
Crystal: Regular arrangement of molecules. Diamonds, emeralds and rubies are examples.
Aligned: Crystals or layers, for example, all arranged in the same direction.
Magma: Molten (liquid) rock, beneath the earth's surface.
Intrusive: Igneous rocks formed from magma beneath the earth's surface.
Extrusive: Igneous rocks formed from magma on top of the earth's surface.
Lava: Molten (liquid) rock, flowing over the earth's surface.
Volcanic: This means coming from a volcano.
Ash: Fine particles of material thrown into the atmosphere during a volcanic eruption.
Erupt: When a volcano throws out ash and lava it is said to ...
Exposure: When bare rock appears in a landscape.
Transport: Movement of rock particles by a river, for example.
Burial: When rock particles become covered in further layers of rock deposits.
Compression: Crushing or squeezing something under a weight of rock.
Rock: Natural solid mixture of minerals.
Cycle: A series of events that are repeated in the same order.
Composition: The way in which a whole or mixture is made up.
Volcano: A mountain with a vent through which lava, rock fragments, hot vapour, and gas erupt
Granite: A very hard, granular, crystalline, igneous rock consisting mainly of quartz, mica, and feldspar
Grain: A small fragment of rock
Limestone: A hard sedimentary rock, made of calcium carbonate often used as building material
Obsidian: A hard, dark, glass-like volcanic rock formed by the rapid solidification of lava without crystallization
Gabbro: A dark, coarse-grained crystalline igneous rock
Sandstone: Sedimentary rock consisting of sand or quartz grains stuck together
Silica: A colourless compound of silicon and oxygen which occurs as the mineral quartz
Porous: Allowing a fluid to pass through
Melt: Change state from solid to liquid
Minerals: Solid, naturally occurring inorganic substances

8i - Heating
Conduction: How heat energy moves through a metal bar.
Convection: How heat energy moves from bottom to top of a room or an ocean.
Radiation: How heat energy reaches the earth from the sun.
Insulator: A material that heat moves through slowly.
Conductor: A material that heat moves through quickly.
Heat: Thermal energy - energy due to the motion of the atoms in a material.
Temperature: A measure of the amount of heat in a material.
Thermometer: Instrument to measure temperature.
Polystyrene: A plastic often used as a thermal insulator in its expanded form.
Flammable: Something that can ignite (catch fire) easily.
Celsius: A commonly used temperature scale based on the freezing and boiling points of water.
Expansion: An increase in length, area or volume, often due to an increase in temperature.
Density: "Heaviness", something's mass divided by its volume.
Float: To move or rest on the surface of a fluid because of its lower density.
Balloon: A thin rubber ball shaped container of gas.
Combustion: Burning.
Vacuum: Nothing at all. This is in space between the sun and the earth.
Absorb: To take in something, for example heat or light.
Reflect: To bounce sound or light from a surface, for example.
Particle: A very small, tiny piece of a substance.
Energy: Light, sound, heat, kinetic, electrical and chemical are all forms of ...
Model: A representation that shows simply how something works
State: The particular condition that something is in - solid, liquid or gasGas: eye
Transfer: Move from place to place
Gas: The low density state of matter where the particles are relatively far apart
Liquid: The high density state of matter where the particles are close together and slip past eachother
Solid: The high density state of matter where the particles are close together in fixed positions
Glass: A solid where the particles are in a fixed, irregular arrangement
Scale: A device used in arranging, measuring, or quantifying something in a sequence
Hazard: A potential source of harm or adverse health effect on a person or persons
Safety: An environment where you are unlikely to be harmed


8j - Magnets
North: The direction to the earth's Arctic magnetic pole.
Pole: The end of a magnet where the magnetic field lines are concentrated.
South: The direction to the earth's Antarctic magnetic pole.
Permanent: A magnet that remains indefinitely (for ever).
Magnet: Something that can separate iron filings from sand.
Electromagnet: A magnet that can be turned on and off.
Magnetic Field: The volume surrounding a magnet, often represented by a pattern of lines (5).
Core: The central part of a transformer or electromagnet, usually made of iron.
Solenoid: A coil of wire used as an electromagnet.
Coil: Wire wound in loops.
Recycle: To use again - environmentally friendly.
Compass: A device that uses a magnet to show directions north and south.
Relay: Electrical switch operated by an electromagnet.
Electric Bell: Sound generator that uses an electromagnet and a chime (7,4).
Scrapyard: This is where old cars and other waste metal ends up.
Current: Movement of electric charge in a complete circuit.
Earth: The planet on which we live.
Iron: The most common magnetic element.
Nickel: A silvery-white magnetic metallic element, used in coinage
Needle: A short straight wire with a pointed end
Steel: A hard, strong grey alloy of iron with carbon or other elements
Electricity: The flow of charged particles
Rotate: To turn about an axis
Nail: A short straight wire with a pointed end used to join pieces of wood

8k - Light
Opaque: If no light passes through this material it is ....
Translucent: Allows light to pass, but not clearly.
Transparent: Can be seen through clearly.
Spectrum: All the colours of the rainbow.
Reflection: What you see in a mirror.
Refraction: Why a stick in water seems crooked.
Image: A picture formed by light.
Normal: The line at right angles to a surface or interface.
Surface: Where the light is absorbed or reflected.
Incident: The light ray coming in.
Ray: Another name for a light beam.
White: Reflects all incident light.
Black: Absorbs all incident light.
Absorb: Soak up energy (or liquid!).
Reflect: Wave bounces from a surface or interface.
Transmit: Let a sound or light wave through.
Mirror: Allows you to see your reflection.
Lens: Optical component in glasses and telescopes.
Glass: Lenses, windows and prisms can be made of this material.
Diamond: Sparkling, valuable, colourless gemstone.
Light: Visible form of energy.
Xray: Short wavelength electromagnetic wave used to image bones in the body
Colour: The property of an object determined by the reflected light wavelength
Speed: Distance travelled divided by time taken
Energy: Light, sound, heat, kinetic, electrical and chemical are all forms of ...
Eye: The globular organ of sight in the head of humans and vertebrate animals.
Camera: Device used for storing an image
Microscope: Device used to magnify something
Telescope: Optical device used to image far away objects
Beam: A ray of light
Shine: To emit or reflect light
Picture: An image
Invert: To put upside down or in the opposite position or order
Melanoma: A malignant tumour associated with skin cancer.
Radio: Transmission of information with long wavelength electromagnetic radiation

8l - Sound
Volume: Loudness of a sound.
Wave: This transmits energy but not mass.
Loudness: Perceived amount of energy in a sound wave.
Amplitude: Height of a wave - half the peak to peak.
Pitch: Musical sound frequency.
Frequency: How many complete waves every second?
Stringed: Musical instruments like a violin, guitar, viola and double bass.
Percussion: Musical instruments that are struck or hit.
Decibel: Unit of sound loudness.
Echo: A reflected sound.
Reflect: Wave bounces from a surface or interface.
Absorb: Soak up energy (or liquid!).
Transmit: Let a sound or light wave through.
Instruments: The orchestra is made up of these.
Microphone: Device that converts sound energy to electrical energy.
Loudspeaker: Device that converts electrical energy to sound energy.
Vibrate: Move back and forth to emit a sound.
Speed: How fast something is moving.
Sound: Transmission of energy by oscillating particles
Hear: Detection of sound by an animal
Ear: Organ used by an animal to detect sound
Eardrum: The membrane of the middle ear, which vibrates in response to sound waves
Solid: The high density state of matter where the particles are close together in fixed positions
Gas: The low density state of matter where the particles are relatively far apart
Level: Intensity of sound, for example
Deaf: Unable to hear
Oscilloscope: Device used to display waves on a screen
Oscillate: To go up and down, back and forth or side to side
Pollution: A substance which has harmful or poisonous effects on the environment
Bell: A metallic dome that emits a sound when struck
Radio: Transmission of information with long wavelength electromagnetic radiation
Intensity: The power of incident sound or light
Audio: To do with sound


 

 

 



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