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Word Definitions

Y9 Science Definitions

9a-Inheritance
Classification: Sorting out different living things into ordered groups.
Variation: Differences in characteristics within a particular species.
Characteristic: A particular distinctive feature of a plant or animal.
Identification: Establishing the name and precise classifiction of a plant or animal.
Continuous: Variations that can take any value, like height or weight.
Inherit: Acquire characteristics from a parent.
Cattle: Farm animals selectively bred for efficient meat or milk production.
Dog: Domestic pet originally selectively bred from wolves.
Adaptation: How an animal or plant species changes over time in order to survive in its habitat.
Environment: The surroundings in which all animals and plants live.
Habitat: The natural home of a particular plant or animal.
Gene: Section of DNA that contains the information about a particular trait.
Chromosome: X shaped structures in a cell nucleus made up of coiled up DNA.
DNA: Long molecule that contains all the information needed to make a plant or animal.
Trait: A genetically determined inherited characteristic.
Generation: A single stage in the evolutionary descent of a group of animals or plants.
Hormone: A chemical made in a plant or animal that regulates growth and development.
Selection: Choosing particular animals or plants to breed together to produce the next generation.
Pollen: A fine powder produced by flowering plants that contains male reproductive cells.
Chicken: Bird farmed for meat and eggs
Breeding: The mating and production of offspring by animals
Plant: A living producer - converts light energy to chemical energy
Animal: A living organism which feeds on organic matter and able to respond rapidly to changes in the environment
Fertilise: To cause to develop a new individual by introducing male reproductive material to the female egg cell
Offspring: The young of an animal
Pollination: To transfer pollen from the anther to the stigma of a plant
Clone: Genetically identical organisms
Ovule: The part of the ovary of seed plants that contains the female germ cell
Flower: The seed-bearing part of a plant, typically surrounded by a brightly coloured petals

9b-Fit and Healthy
Vitamin: Chemical found in vegetables, fruit and cereals that help your body to work efficiently.
Mineral: an element needed to make some body chemicals.
Cilia: Hair shaped structures in the nose that trap dust before it reaches the lungs.
Emphysema: A respiratory disease causing shortness of breath, often due to smoking.
Addiction: Condition where somebody is unable or unwilling to stop doing something, despite the harmful consequences.
Fit: To be physically strong and healthy.
Alcohol: A drug found in beer, wine and spirits.
Drug: A chemical that alters the way the body works.
Deficiency: Absence of certain minerals or vitamins.
Exercise: Deliberate movement of the body in order to keep fit.
Diet: All the different types of food that you eat.
Smoking: Burning tobacco and inhaling the products.
Skeleton: Animal system that supports the body.
Circulation: Flow of blood around the body
Heart: Muscular organ that pumps blood around the body.
Kidney: Organ that cleans the blood.
Liver: Organ in the digestive system that produces bile.
Bile: Substance produced in the liver that emulsifies fat and neutralises stomach acid.
Diaphragm: Muscular organ used in breathing.
Energy: Light, sound, heat, kinetic, electrical and chemical are all forms of ...
Activity: Things that somebody is doing
Caffeine: Active ingredient in coffee and tea
Coffee: Popular drink containing caffeine
Disease: A medical condition that causes illness
Muscle: A tissue that contracts to cause movement
Fibre: Dietary material containing substances such as cellulose that are difficult to digest
Nutrition: The process of obtaining the food necessary for health and growth
Tobacco: Plant leaf found in cigarettes
Monoxide: Compound containing oxygen

9c-Plants
Plant: A living producer - converts light energy to chemical energy.
Photosynthesis: Process used by green plants to convert light energy to chemical energy.
Chlorophyll: Green substance in a chloroplast that converts light energy to chemical energy.
Palisade: Tall plant cell in a leaf that is adapted to collect light efficiently.
Taproot: Principal root.
Leaves: Flat, green organ adapted to collect as much light as possible to make food for the plant.
Stem: Part of the plant that transports water and food and keeps the plant upright.
Fertiliser: Chemicals added to the soil in order to ensure healthy plant growth.
Bulb: Plant organ that stores energy underground for at least one new bud.
Chloroplast: Tiny structures in a palisade cell that contain chlorophyll.
Root: Underground plant organ that takes up water and minerals from the soil.
roothair: Specialised cell on a root that has a large surface area for efficient absorption of water and minerals(4,4).
Phosphate: Mineral needed for reactions involving photosynthesis and respiration.
Potassium: Mineral needed by the enzymes used in photosynthesis and respiration.
Nitrate: Mineral needed for making amino acids and proteins.
Minerals: Chemical ions needed for healthy plant growth.
Green: The characteristic colour of chlorophyll.
Water: Comound of hydrogen and oxygen
Oxygen: A colourless, gaseous element essential for respiration
Respiration: A chemical reaction taking place in all living cells where glucose and oxygen react to release energy
Carbon: A black solid element, found in all organic compounds
Dioxide: Compound containing oxygen
Biomass: The total amount of organisms in a given area or volume
Starch: Carbohydrate - an important constituent of the human diet
Growth: Increase in size with age
Glucose: A type of sugar
Variation: A small difference between members of the same species

9d-Plants for Food
Starch: A large molecule made from a string of simple sugar molecules.
Sugar: Carbohydrate that is easily soluble in water.
Glucose: A simple sugar, very easily digested.
Light: Energy used by green plants to produce chemical energy (food).
Water: The most common solvent, needed for life processes to take place.
Photosynthesis: Process used by green plants to convert light energy into chemical energy.
Protein: A large molecule made from a string of amino acids. Used for body growth and repair.
Biomass: A quantity of plant or animal material.
Herbicide: Chemical sprayed on crops to kill weeds.
Pesticide: Chemical sprayed on crops to kill unwanted insects.
Weed: Unwanted plants growng in between crops.
Selection: Choosing particular animals or plants to breed together to produce the next generation.
Deciduous: Trees that lose their leaves in Winter.
Transpiration: Evaporation of water from plant surfaces, usually from stomata on leaves.
Crops: Plants grown on purpose to provide food or raw materials.
Wheat: Cereal crop used to make flour for bread and pasta.
Rice: Food crop that produces thin white grains.
Vitamin: Chemical found in vegetables, fruit and cereals that help your body to work efficiently.
Herbivore: Animal that only eats plants.
Producer: Living thing that can make its own food using light energy.
Respiration: the process of breaking down foods for energy.
Plant: A living producer - converts light energy to chemical energy
Leaf: The main plant organs of photosynthesis and transpiration
Green: Colour of light with wavelength between blue and yellow
Chlorophyll: A green pigment, present in all green plants and in cyanobacteria, which is used to provide energy via photosynthesis
Cell: The smallest structural and functional unit of an organism
Variegated: Having patches of different colours
Grass: Short plants with long, narrow leaves
Sustainable: Can be maintained at a certain rate or level
Greenhouse: A glass or plastic building to protect plants

9e-Chemical Reactions
Element: This is found on the periodic table. It contains only one kind of atom.
Reactive: A chemical that will easily react to form a new compound.
Thermal: This means to do with heat.
Sodium: Reactive metallic element that makes up half of the atoms in common salt.
Chlorine: Halogen that makes up half of the atoms in common salt.
Excess: Reactant that remains when a particular chemical reaction has finished.
Salt: Formed in a neutralisation reaction together with water.
Reaction: Where new chemical products are formed from chemical reactants.
Ductile: Able to be drawn (pulled) easily into a wire.
Product: Output of a chemical reaction.
Visible: Something that can be seen is ...
Change: The apparent difference between the start and finish of a chemical reaction.
Neutralise: Acid and alkali completely react.
Acid: Chemical with a pH value less than 7. Sulphuric or hydrochloric are examples.
Alkali: Chemical like sodium hydroxide with a pH value greater than 7.
Neutral: Chemical like water with a pH value equal to 7.
Colour: Visible characteristic of a chemical compound like copper sulphate.
Shiny: Metallic surface which gives a clear reflection.
Ring: Sound that metallic objects like bells make when they are struck.
Magnetic: Able to be picked up with a magnet.
Tough: A material that is not easily broken is called ...
Beaker: Glass vessel used to hold liquid chemicals and solutions.
Equation: Statement of a chemical reaction in words
Hydrogen: The first, lightest element on the periodic table
Carbonate: compound containing carbon and oxygen
Pattern: A regular sequence in the way in which something happens
Formula: A relationship or rule expressed in symbols
Nitrate: Salt containing nitrogen and oxygen
Potassium: A reactive white metallic element. An important fertilizer
Sulphuric: Acid containing sulphur and oxygen
Group: A set of elements occupying a column in the periodic table
Reactant: A substance that takes part in and undergoes change during a reaction
Magnesium: A silver-white metallic element that burns with a brilliant white flame
Zinc: White metallic element used to galvanize steel


9f-Chemical Reactivity
Lithium: The lowest density metallic element. It is soft and reactive.
Potassium: Soft, reactive, low density metallic element, important for healthy plant growth.
Sodium: Soft, reactive, low density metallic element used in yellow street lights.
Aluminium: Silver-white low density metallic element used for saucepans and bicycle wheel rims.
Lead: Soft, dense, unreactive grey metallic element used in car batteries.
Copper: Orange metallic element used for household electrical wiring.
Silver: Unreactive metallic element with extremely high electrical conductivity used for coins.
Gold: Very unreactive, expensive yellow metallic element used for jewellery.
Oxygen: Non metallic gaseous element needed for respiration.
Iron: Most common magnetic element. Corrodes to form rust.
Steel: Industrially important form of iron used for car bodies and structural girders.
Rust: Iron corrodes in the presence of air and water to form ...
Water: The most common solvent - contains the elements hydrogen and oxygen.
Tarnish: Mild corrosion of silver, for example.
Corrosion: An unwanted reaction between metals and the atmosphere and water.
Neutralise: When a complete reaction takes place between acid and alkali they are said to ...
Acid: Chemical with a pH value less than 7. Sulphuric or hydrochloric are examples.
Alkali: Chemical like sodium hydroxide with a pH value greater than 7.
Blast Furnace: Where iron is produced in industrial quantities
Reactivity: The ease with which an element forms componds
Reaction: The formation of a product or products from two or more reactants
Metal: Shiny materials that are good conductors of heat and electricity
Oxide: Compound of oxygen
Zinc: White metallic element used to galvanize steel
Sulphate: Salt containing sulphur and oxygen
Flammable: A substance that can burn in air
Extraction: Separation of a chemical from a mixture
Ore: Rock containing a valuable substance
Element: A pure chemical found on the periodic table
Welding: Joining two solid items by localized melting
Nitrate: Salt containing nitrogen and oxygen


9g-Environmental Chemistry
Acidrain: Liquid pollution from the skies that kills trees and lakes (4,4).
Limestone: Calcium carbonate as a sedimentary rock.
Corrosion: An unwanted reaction between metals and the atmosphere and water.
Weathering: Physical, biological or chemical breakdown of rocks.
Minerals: Valuable chemical compounds found in the earth's crust.
Greenhouse: Glass building where plants are grown.
Globalwarming: Process where the average temperature of the earth increases (6,7).
Pollution: Chemical or radioactive contamination of the environment by humans.
Resources: Raw materials on the earth.
Photosynthesis: Process used by green plants to convert light energy to chemical energy.
Ozone: Form of oxygen that protects us from harmful ultraviolet radiation.
CFC: Banned liquid refrigerant that destroys the ozone layer.
Methane: Chemical name of "natural gas". Also produced in large volumes by cattle.
Carbon dioxide: Greenhouse gas produced when fossil fuels are burnt (6,7).
Fossil: Petrified (stony) remains of prehistoric plants and animals.
fuel: Substance like oil, coal or gas that is burnt in air to release chemical energy.
Ultraviolet: Type of light, just beyond the visible spectrum, that causes cataracts and skin cancer.
Sun: Where all our energy originally came from.
light: Visible form of energy.
Stratosphere: Very high region of the atmoshere where jet airliners fly.
Rock: Solid mixture of minerals
Environment: The surroundings in which all animals and plants live
Soil: Top surface of the earth which supports life
Plant: A living producer - converts light energy to chemical energy
Building: A structure with a roof and walls, such as a house or factory
Solution: A liquid with something dissolved in it
Oxide: Compound of oxygen
Burn: Consume a type of fuel as an energy source
Volcano: A mountain with a vent through which lava, rock fragments, hot vapour, and gas erupt
Dilute: To add more liquid to a solution
Dissolve: To form a solution using a solid and a liquid
Sediment: Solid residue at the bottom of a liquid

9h-Using Chemistry
Reaction: Where new chemical products form from chemical reactants.
Combustion: Burning something in air.
Explosion: Rapid expansion of hot gases as a chemical reaction takes place.
Oxidation: Chemical reaction with oxygen.
Cook: Produce palatable food by application of heat.
Corrode: To react metal with the atmosphere and water.
Polymer: A very long molecule formed from a string of identical chemical building blocks. Often a type of plastic.
Monomer: A chemical building block used to form plastics.
Cracking: Breaking long chain hydrocarbon molecules into more useful short chain molecules.
Plastic: General name for a polymer like polythene, polypropylene, nylon and polystyrene.
Oil: Fossil fuel raw material used to make most plastics.
Fraction: A portion of crude oil with a particular boiling point.
Distillation: A technique used to separate liquids with different boiling points.
Paraffin: Fossil fuel used in jet aircraft, also called kerosene.
Catalyst: A substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction but that is not used up itself.
Diesel: A fraction of crude oil that is used in buses and lorries as a fuel.
Ion: An atom with an excess positive or negative electric charge.
Anion: A negative ion that travels towards the positive anode.
Cation: A positive ion that travels towards the negative cathode.
Electron: A tiny particle, much lighter than an atom, that carries a negative electric charge.
Carbon: A black solid element, found in all organic compounds
Energy: Light, sound, heat, kinetic, electrical and chemical are all forms of ...
Magnesium: A silver-white metallic element that burns with a brilliant white flame
Lithium: A soft silver-white metallic element. It is the lightest of the alkali metals.
Oxide: Compound of oxygen
Priestley: English chemist who discovered oxygen
Lavoisier: French chemist who discovered oxygen is needed in burning
Kerosene: Hydrocarbon - paraffin
Molecule: A group of atoms bonded together, representing the smallest fundamental unit of a chemical compound


9l-Pressure and Moments
Atmosphere: The gaseous layer on a planet
Pressure: The total force applied divided by the area on which it acts
Air: The gaseous layer surrounding the planet Earth
Water: The contents of the Earth's oceans
Depth: The height of liquid in a container
Dam: Something that prevents the natural flow of a river
Pascal: The unit of pressure - one newton per square metre
Inverse: The opposite of an operation or action
Force: Something that causes an object to change speed or direction
Compress: This means to squash
Incompressible: Totally resistant to being squashed
Particles: Tiny pieces of matter
Hydraulics: Transmission of compressive forces by a liquid
Liquid: The state of matter where particles are close together but can move past eachother
Gas: The state of matter where particles are far apart and move quickly
Fluid: A gas or liquid
Solid: The state of matter where particles are close together and cannot move past eachother
Moment: Torque - the product of the applied force and the perpendicular distance to the axis
Pivot: A point about which something turns - a lever for example
Fulcrum: A point about which something turns - a seesaw for example
Balance: A device for comparing weights
Lever: A rigid bar resting on a fulcrum
Muscle: A tissue that contracts to cause movement
Jack: A device used for lifting that relies on a screw mechanism
Screw: A fastener with a spiral thread
Counterbalance: A weight that balances another weight
Hydrostatic: The pressure exerted by liquid
Submarine: Vehicle that travels underwater
Tyre: Flexible outer part of a wheel
Steam: Water in the form of a gas


9m-Investigating Science
Graph: Representation of data by a picture
Fairtest: Ensure that only one input variable changes at a time to make it a (4,4)
Input: The variable that you change during experiment
variable: A factor that can be changed in an experiment
Outcome: The variable that is the result of an experiment
Control: A variable that remains constant during an experiment
Slope: Distance up (or down) divided by distance across on a graph
Gradient: Slope of a graph
Trend: The pattern that emerges from the results of your experiment
Data: Information obtained from an experiment
Repeat: Make a measurement again
Average: The sum of all values divided by the number of values
Errors: These are caused by imperfections in your equipment or mistakes that you make
Ruler: A straight edge with equally spaced markings on it
Lineofbestfit: (4,2,4,3) Drawn through scattered points, it lets you estimate values not in your original data
Sketch: A rough drawing
Axes: Horizontal or vertical lines on a graph from which data points are plotted
Label: This tells you information about an axis, for example
Title: The name of your experiment
Plot: To mark the data points on a graph
Water: The most common solvent, needed for life processes to take place.
Plant: A living producer - converts light energy to chemical energy.
Source: A thing from which something can be obtained.
Evidence: The available information indicating whether a proposition is true.
Fact: A statement that has sufficient evidence to be proven as true.
Theory: A suggestion of how something works
Model: A representation that shows simply how something works
Knowledge: A solid basis of facts
Evaluate: Assessing the supplied data
Climate: The average weather conditions in a particular place
Opinion: A view formed about something, not necessarily based on fact
Expert: A person who is very knowledgeable about or skilful in a particular area
Relevant: Appropriate to the subject in hand

 

 

 

 



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